Neben Fuβball sind auch einige weitere Ballsportarten wie Basketball, Handball, Rugby, Feldhockey usw. unbestreitbar beliebt. In Abhängigkeit von der Region. Immobile vom Dortmund spielt für den FC Sevilla, Van der Vaart und Heiko Westermann sind vom HSV zu Betis Sevilla gewechselt. Ob sie die Übermacht von. In tradtionellen Sportwettkämpfen werden in vielen Regionen Spaniens bis heute die Sieger der einzelnen Sportart ermittelt. Solche sportlichen.
Spanien - SportNews Spanien Sport - Sportnews und Sportnachrichten aus Spanien, Infos zu Sportveranstaltungen und Sportarten, Meisterschaften von Formel1 bis Fussball. Sport & Abenteuer in Spanien. Hier einige tolle Tipps für einen unvergesslichen Aktivurlaub: Wandern, Surfen, Skifahren oder Klettern | utvfacilities.com auf deutsch. Die Spanier begeistern sich aber auch für Handball, Basketball, Volleyball, Rugby und Rollhockey. Zahlreiche Fans haben außerdem der Motorradrennsport.
Spanien Sport Sider i kategorien "Sport i Spanien" VideoLea Roht-WM 2018 Pole Sport in Spanien If you are passionate about sports, you will simply love Spain. We have around days of sun a year and some spectacular scenery where you can enjoy the outdoors like never before. Just imagine, thousands of miles of hiking routes and bicycle tracks, golf courses created by leading designers, perfect beaches for surfing and diving, horse riding routes along the coastline. Spain is considered as one of the world’s powerhouse, not just in football but in most major sports events. Other sports that have enjoyed considerable success in Spain include basketball, cycling, futsal, handball, tennis, motorcycling and even Formula One. Other popular spectator sports include hockey on roller skates, motorcycle racing, and tennis. Cycling also has a large following, and Spanish cyclist Miguel Indurain was a multiple winner of the Tour de France. Sport in Spain This page was last edited on 18 February , at (UTC). Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional. If you ask people to think of a typical Spanish sport, most people will think of soccer. But the truth is that in Spain we also have typical, traditional sports with a lot of history behind them, and which, unfortunately, many people have forgotten about.
Attribution Sport Africa. Published duration 14 October. Attribution International. Published duration 13 October.
Published duration 12 October. Published duration 10 October. Published duration 9 October. Published duration 7 October.
Published duration 6 October. Attribution Chelsea. Published duration 5 October. Published duration 6 September. Spanien har som et udviklet iland verdens Imidlertid skulle det vise sig at blive en lang og sej kamp, da ibererne ikke ville overgive sig.
I slutningen af det 4. Spanien opstod som et samlet rige i det I slutningen af det Denne indre styrke manifesterede sig gradvis i det Det blev en fiasko, og Spanien blev reelt en lydstat under Frankrig.
Der opstod revolter, og den tidligere spanske konge Ferdinand 7. Mod slutningen af det Spanien blev i tiden umiddelbart efter 2. Landet blev snart et demokrati , der igen gav mere selvstyre til regionerne.
Paris Saint-Germain forward Neymar has expressed his desired to play with former team-mate Lionel Messi next season.
Former Barcelona president Joan Laporta has officially launched his bid for a second spell at the helm to fill the vacant role left by Josep Maria Bartomeu.
Diego Maradona's season at Sevilla is largely forgotten but memories of his genius live on. How would Lionel Messi perform in the Premier League?
Crunching the numbers behind the genius. The legendary former Ajax, Barcelona and Man Utd goalkeeper coach Frans Hoek on his innovative approach and the secrets of his success.
Football La Liga. The Spanish Amnesty Law let people of Franco's regime continue inside institutions without consequences, even perpetrators of some crimes during transition to democracy like the Massacre of 3 March in Vitoria or Massacre of Atocha.
In the Basque Country, moderate Basque nationalism coexisted with a radical nationalist movement led by the armed organisation ETA until the latter's dissolution in May On 23 February , rebel elements among the security forces seized the Cortes in an attempt to impose a military-backed government.
King Juan Carlos took personal command of the military and successfully ordered the coup plotters, via national television, to surrender.
During the s the democratic restoration made possible a growing open society. On 1 January , Spain fully adopted the euro , and Spain experienced strong economic growth, well above the EU average during the early s.
However, well-publicised concerns issued by many economic commentators at the height of the boom warned that extraordinary property prices and a high foreign trade deficit were likely to lead to a painful economic collapse.
In the Prestige oil spill occurred with big ecological consequences along Spain's Atlantic coastline. Bush in the Iraq War , and a strong movement against war rose in Spanish society.
On 11 March a local Islamist terrorist group inspired by Al-Qaeda carried out the largest terrorist attack in Spanish history when they killed people and wounded more than 1, others by bombing commuter trains in Madrid.
Because of the proximity of the election , the issue of responsibility quickly became a political controversy, with the main competing parties PP and PSOE exchanging accusations over the handling of the incident.
The proportion of Spain's foreign born population increased rapidly during its economic boom in the early s, but then declined due to the financial crisis.
Government talks with ETA happened, and the group announced its permanent cease of violence in The bursting of the Spanish property bubble in led to the —16 Spanish financial crisis.
High levels of unemployment, cuts in government spending and corruption in Royal family and People's Party served as a backdrop to the —12 Spanish protests.
In , Mariano Rajoy 's conservative People's Party won the election with A Catalan independence referendum was held on 1 October and then, on 27 October, the Catalan parliament voted to unilaterally declare independence from Spain to form a Catalan Republic   on the day the Spanish Senate was discussing approving direct rule over Catalonia as called for by the Spanish Prime Minister.
On 25 March, the death toll in Spain was the second highest in the world. Mount Teide Tenerife is the highest mountain peak in Spain and is the third largest volcano in the world from its base.
Spain is a transcontinental country , having territory in both Europe and Africa. On the northeast, along the Pyrenees mountain range, it is bordered by France and Andorra.
Mainland Spain is a mountainous country, dominated by high plateaus and mountain chains. The Meseta Central often translated as "Inner Plateau" is a vast plateau in the heart of peninsular Spain.
Alluvial plains are found along the coast, the largest of which is that of the Guadalquivir in Andalusia. Three main climatic zones can be separated, according to geographical situation and orographic conditions:   .
Low-lying areas of the Canary Islands average above The fauna presents a wide diversity that is due in large part to the geographical position of the Iberian peninsula between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and between Africa and Eurasia , and the great diversity of habitats and biotopes , the result of a considerable variety of climates and well differentiated regions.
The vegetation of Spain is varied due to several factors including the diversity of the relief, the climate and latitude. Spain includes different phytogeographic regions, each with its own floristic characteristics resulting largely from the interaction of climate, topography, soil type and fire, biotic factors.
The constitutional history of Spain dates back to the constitution of As a result, Spain is now composed of 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities with varying degrees of autonomy thanks to its Constitution, which nevertheless explicitly states the indivisible unity of the Spanish nation.
The constitution also specifies that Spain has no state religion and that all are free to practice and believe as they wish.
The Spanish administration approved the Gender Equality Act in aimed at furthering equality between genders in Spanish political and economic life.
Spain is a constitutional monarchy , with a hereditary monarch and a bicameral parliament , the Cortes Generales General Courts. The legislative branch is made up of the Congress of Deputies Congreso de los Diputados , a lower house with members, elected by popular vote on block lists by proportional representation to serve four-year terms, and the Senate Senado , an upper house with seats of which are directly elected by popular vote, using a limited voting method, and the other 51 appointed by the regional legislatures to also serve four-year terms.
The executive branch consists of a Council of Ministers presided over by the Prime Minister, who is nominated as candidate by the monarch after holding consultations with representatives from the different parliamentary groups, voted in by the members of the lower house during an investiture session and then formally appointed by the monarch.
The Prime Minister, deputy prime ministers and the rest of ministers convene at the Council of Ministers. Health and education systems among others are managed by the Spanish communities, and in addition, the Basque Country and Navarre also manage their own public finances based on foral provisions.
The Spanish Constitution of "protect all Spaniards and all the peoples of Spain in the exercise of human rights, their cultures and traditions, languages and institutions".
According to Amnesty International AI , government investigations of alleged police abuses are often lengthy and punishments were light.
Spain provides one of the highest degrees of liberty in the world for its LGBT community. The Spanish State is divided into 17 autonomous communities and 2 autonomous cities, both groups being the highest or first-order administrative division in the country.
Autonomous communities are divided into provinces, of which there are 50 in total, and in turn, provinces are divided into municipalities.
In Catalonia, two additional divisions exist, the comarques sing. The concept of a comarca exists in all autonomous communities, however, unlike Catalonia, these are merely historical or geographical subdivisions.
Spain's autonomous communities are the first level administrative divisions of the country. They were created after the current constitution came into effect in in recognition of the right to self-government of the " nationalities and regions of Spain ".
This territorial organisation, based on devolution , is known in Spain as the "State of Autonomies". The basic institutional law of each autonomous community is the Statute of Autonomy.
The Statutes of Autonomy establish the name of the community according to its historical and contemporary identity, the limits of its territories, the name and organisation of the institutions of government and the rights they enjoy according to the constitution.
Catalonia, Galicia and the Basque Country, which identified themselves as nationalities , were granted self-government through a rapid process.
Andalusia also took that denomination in its first Statute of Autonomy, even though it followed the longer process stipulated in the constitution for the rest of the country.
Progressively, other communities in revisions to their Statutes of Autonomy have also taken that denomination in accordance to their historical and modern identities, such as the Valencian Community,  the Canary Islands,  the Balearic Islands,  and Aragon.
The autonomous communities have wide legislative and executive autonomy, with their own parliaments and regional governments.
The distribution of powers may be different for every community, as laid out in their Statutes of Autonomy, since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical.
Only two communities—the Basque Country and Navarre—have full fiscal autonomy. Beyond fiscal autonomy, the nationalities —Andalusia, the Basque Country, Catalonia, and Galicia—were devolved more powers than the rest of the communities, among them the ability of the regional president to dissolve the parliament and call for elections at any time.
Nonetheless, recent amendments to existing Statutes of Autonomy or the promulgation of new Statutes altogether, have reduced the asymmetry between the powers originally granted to the nationalities and the rest of the regions.
Finally, along with the 17 autonomous communities, two autonomous cities are also part of the State of Autonomies and are first-order territorial divisions: Ceuta and Melilla.
These are two exclaves located in the northern African coast. Autonomous communities are divided into provinces , which served as their territorial building blocks.
In turn, provinces are divided into municipalities. The existence of both the provinces and the municipalities is guaranteed and protected by the constitution, not necessarily by the Statutes of Autonomy themselves.
Municipalities are granted autonomy to manage their internal affairs, and provinces are the territorial divisions designed to carry out the activities of the State.
The current provincial division structure is based—with minor changes—on the territorial division by Javier de Burgos , and in all, the Spanish territory is divided into 50 provinces.
The communities of Asturias, Cantabria, La Rioja, the Balearic Islands, Madrid, Murcia and Navarre are the only communities that comprise a single province, which is coextensive with the community itself.
In these cases, the administrative institutions of the province are replaced by the governmental institutions of the community. After the return of democracy following the death of Franco in , Spain's foreign policy priorities were to break out of the diplomatic isolation of the Franco years and expand diplomatic relations , enter the European Community , and define security relations with the West.
As a member of NATO since , Spain has established itself as a participant in multilateral international security activities.
Spain's EU membership represents an important part of its foreign policy. Even on many international issues beyond western Europe, Spain prefers to coordinate its efforts with its EU partners through the European political co-operation mechanisms.
Spain has maintained its special relations with Hispanic America and the Philippines. Its policy emphasises the concept of an Ibero-American community, essentially the renewal of the concept of " Hispanidad " or " Hispanismo " , as it is often referred to in English, which has sought to link the Iberian Peninsula with Hispanic America through language, commerce, history and culture.
It is fundamentally "based on shared values and the recovery of democracy. Spain claims Gibraltar , a 6-square-kilometre 2. Then a Spanish town, it was conquered by an Anglo-Dutch force in during the War of the Spanish Succession on behalf of Archduke Charles , pretender to the Spanish throne.
The legal situation concerning Gibraltar was settled in by the Treaty of Utrecht , in which Spain ceded the territory in perpetuity to the British Crown  stating that, should the British abandon this post, it would be offered to Spain first.
Since the s Spain has called for the return of Gibraltar. The overwhelming majority of Gibraltarians strongly oppose this, along with any proposal of shared sovereignty.
The Spanish claim makes a distinction between the isthmus that connects the Rock to the Spanish mainland on the one hand, and the Rock and city of Gibraltar on the other.
While the Rock and city were ceded by the Treaty of Utrecht, Spain asserts that the "occupation of the isthmus is illegal and against the principles of International Law ".
Another claim by Spain is about the Savage Islands , part of Portugal. In clash with the Portuguese position, Spain claims that they are rocks rather than islands, and therefore Spain does not accept any extension of the Portuguese Exclusive Economic Zone nautical miles generated by the islands, while acknowledging the Selvagens having territorial waters 12 nautical miles.
On 5 July , Spain sent a letter to the UN expressing these views. Spain claims the sovereignty over the Perejil Island , a small, uninhabited rocky islet located in the South shore of the Strait of Gibraltar.
Its sovereignty is disputed between Spain and Morocco. It was the subject of an armed incident between the two countries in The incident ended when both countries agreed to return to the status quo ante which existed prior to the Moroccan occupation of the island.
The islet is now deserted and without any sign of sovereignty. Portugal does not recognise Spain's sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza which was annexed by Spain in after the War of the Oranges.
Portugal stance has been the territory being de iure Portuguese territory and de facto Spanish. The Spanish Armed Forces are divided into three branches: .
Military conscription was suppressed in Since , CO2 emissions have risen notably, not reaching the reduction emissions promised in the Kyoto Protocol for fighting climate change.
In the period — more than half of the years have been qualified as dry or very dry. Spain is the country in Europe more exposed to climate change effects, according to Al Gore.
Electricity from renewable sources in Spain represented The country has a very large wind power capability built up over many years and is one of the world leaders in wind power generation.
Spain also positioned itself as a European leader in Solar power, by — the country was second only to Germany in installed capacity.
Spain's capitalist mixed economy is the 14th largest worldwide and the 5th largest in the European Union , as well as the Eurozone 's 4th largest.
Unemployment stood at By the mids the economy had commenced the growth that had been disrupted by the global recession of the early s.
The strong economic growth helped the government to reduce the government debt as a percentage of GDP and Spain's high unemployment rate began to steadily decline.
With the government budget in balance and inflation under control Spain was admitted into the Eurozone in Since the s some Spanish companies have gained multinational status, often expanding their activities in culturally close Latin America.
Spain is the second biggest foreign investor there, after the United States. Spanish companies have also expanded into Asia, especially China and India.
The reason for this early expansion is the booming interest towards Spanish language and culture in Asia and Africa and a corporate culture that learned to take risks in unstable markets.
In the Economist Intelligence Unit 's quality of life survey placed Spain among the top 10 in the world. The automotive industry is one of the largest employers in the country.
In Spain was the 8th largest automobile producer country in the world and the 2nd largest car manufacturer in Europe after Germany.
By , the automotive industry was generating 8. Crop areas were farmed in two highly diverse manners. They included the humid regions of the north and the northwest, as well as vast arid zones that had not been irrigated.
More than half of the irrigated area was planted in corn , fruit trees , and vegetables. Other agricultural products that benefited from irrigation included grapes, cotton, sugar beets , potatoes, legumes , olive trees , mangos, strawberries , tomatoes, and fodder grasses.
Citrus fruits , vegetables, cereal grains , olive oil , and wine—Spain's traditional agricultural products—continued to be important in the s. Because of the changed diet of an increasingly affluent population, there was a notable increase in the consumption of livestock, poultry, and dairy products.
Increased attention to livestock was the reason that Spain became a net importer of grains. Ideal growing conditions, combined with proximity to important north European markets, made citrus fruits Spain's leading export.
Fresh vegetables and fruits produced through intensive irrigation farming also became important export commodities, as did sunflower seed oil that was produced to compete with the more expensive olive oils in oversupply throughout the Mediterranean countries of the European Community.
In , Spain was the second most visited country in the world, recording 82 million tourists which marked the fifth consecutive year of record-beating numbers.
Spain's geographic location, popular coastlines, diverse landscapes, historical legacy, vibrant culture, and excellent infrastructure has made the country's international tourist industry among the largest in the world.
Castile and Leon is the Spanish leader in rural tourism linked to its environmental and architectural heritage.
Spain is one of the world's leading countries in the development and production of renewable energy. Non-renewable energy sources used in Spain are nuclear 8 operative reactors , gas , coal , and oil.
Spain has the most extensive high-speed rail network in Europe, and the second-most extensive in the world after China. There are 47 public airports in Spain.
Also, more than 30 airports with the number of passengers below 4 million. In the 19th and 20th centuries, science in Spain was held back by severe political instability and consequent economic underdevelopment.
Despite the conditions, some important scientists and engineers emerged. It ranked as the 5th top governmental scientific institution worldwide and 32nd overall in the SCImago Institutions Rankings.
Since , the Mobile World Congress has taken place in Barcelona. With the exception of the region surrounding the capital, Madrid , the most populated areas lie around the coast.
In , the average total fertility rate TFR across Spain was 1. In , Spain granted citizenship to 84, persons, mostly to people from Ecuador, Colombia and Morocco.
They reside primarily on the Mediterranean coast and the Balearic islands, where many choose to live their retirement or telecommute.
Substantial populations descended from Spanish colonists and immigrants exist in other parts of the world, most notably in Latin America.
Beginning in the late 15th century, large numbers of Iberian colonists settled in what became Latin America and at present most white Latin Americans who make up about one-third of Latin America's population are of Spanish or Portuguese origin.
Around , Spaniards emigrated in the 16th century, mostly to Mexico. During the same period perhaps , went to Latin America. The Spanish Constitution of , in its second article, recognises several contemporary entities — nationalities — [m] and regions, within the context of the Spanish nation.
Spain has been described as a de facto plurinational state. In some cases some of the territorial identities may conflict with the dominant Spanish culture.
Distinct traditional identities within Spain include the Basques , Catalans , Galicians , Andalusians and Valencians ,  although to some extent all of the 17 autonomous communities may claim a distinct local identity.
It is this last feature of "shared identity" between the more local level or autonomous community and the Spanish level which makes the identity question in Spain complex and far from univocal.
Spain has a number of descendants of populations from former colonies, especially Latin America and North Africa. Smaller numbers of immigrants from several Sub-Saharan countries have recently been settling in Spain.
There are also sizeable numbers of Asian immigrants, most of whom are of Middle Eastern, South Asian and Chinese origin. The single largest group of immigrants are European; represented by large numbers of Romanians, Britons, Germans , French and others.
The arrival of the gitanos , a Romani people , began in the 16th century; estimates of the Spanish Roma population range from , to over one million.
Their origin is unclear. Historically, Sephardi Jews and Moriscos are the main minority groups originated in Spain and with a contribution to Spanish culture.
According to the Spanish government there were 5. According to residence permit data for , more than , were Romanian, about , were Moroccan , approximately , were British, and , were Ecuadorian.
This sudden and ongoing inflow of immigrants, particularly those arriving illegally by sea, has caused noticeable social tension.
Within the EU, Spain had the 2nd highest immigration rate in percentage terms after Cyprus , but by a great margin, the highest in absolute numbers, up to Another statistically significant factor is the large number of residents of EU origin typically retiring to Spain's Mediterranean coast.
In fact, Spain was Europe's largest absorber of migrants from to , with its immigrant population more than doubling as 2. In , the government instituted a "Plan of Voluntary Return" which encouraged unemployed immigrants from outside the EU to return to their home countries and receive several incentives, including the right to keep their unemployment benefits and transfer whatever they contributed to the Spanish Social Security.
In alone, more than half a million people left Spain. Spain is legally multilingual,  and the constitution establishes that the nation will protect "all Spaniards and the peoples of Spain in the exercise of human rights, their cultures and traditions, languages and institutions.
The constitution also establishes that "the other Spanish languages"—that is, the other languages of Spain—will also be official in their respective autonomous communities in accordance to their Statutes , their organic regional legislations, and that the "richness of the distinct linguistic modalities of Spain represents a patrimony which will be the object of special respect and protection.
Occitan is spoken by less than 5, people, only in the small region of Val d'Aran. In the North African Spanish autonomous city of Melilla , Riff Berber is spoken by a significant part of the population.
Similarly, in Ceuta Darija Arabic is spoken by a significant percentage of the population. In the tourist areas of the Mediterranean coast and the islands, English and German are widely spoken by tourists, foreign residents, and tourism workers.
State education in Spain is free and compulsory from the age of six to sixteen. The levels of education are preschool education, primary education,  secondary education  and post education .
The health care system of Spain Spanish National Health System is considered one of the best in the world, in 7th position in the ranking elaborated by the World Health Organization.
Roman Catholicism , which has a long history in Spain, remains the dominant religion. Although it no longer has official status by law, in all public schools in Spain students have to choose either a religion or ethics class.
Catholicism is the religion most commonly taught, although the teaching of Islam,  Judaism,  and evangelical Christianity  is also recognised in law.
Most Spaniards do not participate regularly in religious services. The Spanish constitution enshrines secularism in governance, as well as freedom of religion or belief for all, saying that no religion should have a "state character," while allowing for the state to "cooperate" with religious groups.
There have been four Spanish Popes. Later, they became Doctors of the Church. The Society of Jesus was co-founded by Ignatius of Loyola , whose Spiritual Exercises and movement led to the establishment of hundreds of colleges and universities in the world, including 28 in the United States alone.
Protestant churches have about 1,, members. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has approximately 46, adherents in congregations in all regions of the country and has a temple in the Moratalaz District of Madrid.
The vast majority was composed of immigrants and descendants originating from the Maghreb especially Morocco and other African countries.
The recent waves of immigration have also led to an increasing number of Hindus , Buddhists , Sikhs and Muslims. After the Reconquista in , Muslims did not live in Spain for centuries.
Late 19th-century colonial expansion in northwestern Africa gave a number of residents in Spanish Morocco and Western Sahara full citizenship.
Their ranks have since been bolstered by recent immigration, especially from Morocco and Algeria. Judaism was practically non-existent in Spain from the expulsion until the 19th century, when Jews were again permitted to enter the country.
Currently there are around 62, Jews in Spain, or 0. Most are arrivals in the past century, while some are descendants of earlier Spanish Jews.
Approximately 80, Jews are thought to have lived in Spain prior to its expulsion. Other sources suggest , converts mostly after the pogroms of and upwards of , expelled.
Descendants of these Sephardic Jews expelled in are given Spanish nationality if they request it.
Spain is a Western country. Almost every aspect of Spanish life is permeated by its Roman heritage, making Spain one of the major Latin countries of Europe.
Spanish culture is marked by strong historic ties to Catholicism, which played a pivotal role in the country's formation and subsequent identity.
Spanish art, architecture, cuisine, and music have been shaped by successive waves of foreign invaders, as well as by the country's Mediterranean climate and geography.
The centuries-long colonial era globalised Spanish language and culture, with Spain also absorbing the cultural and commercial products of its diverse empire.
Spain has 47 World Heritage Sites. The earliest recorded examples of vernacular Romance-based literature date from the same time and location, the rich mix of Muslim, Jewish, and Christian cultures in Muslim Spain, in which Maimonides, Averroes, and others worked, the kharjas jarchas.
During the Reconquista , the epic poem Cantar de Mio Cid was written about a real man—his battles, conquests, and daily life. The Valencian chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch written in Valencian is also remarkable.
The Baroque is the most important period for Spanish culture. We are in the times of the Spanish Empire. Realism offered depictions of contemporary life and society 'as they were'.
In the spirit of general "Realism", Realist authors opted for depictions of everyday and banal activities and experiences, instead of romanticised or stylised presentations.
The group that has become known as the Generation of was marked by the destruction of Spain's fleet in Cuba by US gunboats in , which provoked a cultural crisis in Spain.
The "Disaster" of led established writers to seek practical political, economic, and social solutions in essays grouped under the literary heading of Regeneracionismo.
The Generation of or Novecentismo. The next supposed "generation" of Spanish writers following those of '98 already calls into question the value of such terminology.
While still driven by the national and existential questions that obsessed the writers of '98, they approached these topics with a greater sense of distance and objectivity.
Salvador de Madariaga , another prominent intellectual and writer, was one of the founders of the College of Europe and the composer of the constitutive manifest of the Liberal International.
All were scholars of their national literary heritage, again evidence of the impact of the calls of regeneracionistas and the Generation of for Spanish intelligence to turn at least partially inwards.